Whittier Law School continues to accept applications for all Study Abroad programs beyond the posted application deadline.
Toulouse is the fourth largest city in France, located in the beautiful Southwest, midway between the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Scenically nestled along the Garonne River and the romantic Canal du Midi, the city is renowned for its historic monuments and red brick architecture for which it is known as “la ville rose.” Thirty minutes away is Carcassonne, a world renowned medieval fortified city, and the Pyrenees Mountains are located an hour south of the city. Toulouse is also one of the bases of the European aerospace industry and the largest space center in Europe. Its university is world class and one of Europe’s oldest with the third largest campus in France.
Information on foreign travel, current travel advisories, and safety information for France is available from the U.S. State Department on its website located at: http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1116.html You .should regularly check this site for up to date travel advisories and safety updates.
|Program Dates:||June 28 – July 26, 2013|
|Host University:||Universite de Toulouse 1, Capitol|
|Tuition:||$4,600 for 4 weeks (max 6 units) [includes fees for legal and cultural tours]|
|Scholarships:||Linda Kulakowski Scholarship, approx. $500 (not awarded each year)|
Established by the Treaty of Paris in 1229 for the purpose of teaching orthodox Catholicism to encroaching Moors in southern France, the University of Toulouse has become one of the largest, most respected institutions of secular education in the nation. Initially located in the center of the city, the University of Toulouse split into three separate colleges and numerous specialized institutions of higher learning in 1969.
Today, the University maintains campuses throughout the city. The largest of these, the Universite des Sciences Sociales de Toulouse is still located in the historical city center, near Saint Sernin Basilica and the Garonne River, on the early site of the original University. Home to over 20,000 students, 15% of which are graduate students, the Universite des Sciences Sociales de Toulouse awards more than 7,000 degrees annually from 92 different programs offered through the Law School, the School of Economic and Social Administration, the School of Management, and the Institute of Political Sciences.
There are numerous French Government programs offered through the University of Toulouse, which significantly aid students by providing them access to housing, work, and research grants. The Centre Regional des Oeuvres Universitaires et Scolaire and the Centre Regional d’Information Jeunesse are government organizations aimed at improving and facilitating living and working conditions for students during the school year and in the summer. The Centre International pour Etudiants et Stagiaires manages student training courses as well as study and research grants, including facilitating contacts between grant holders and local scientific and business circles. In addition, the Pole European is a recent creation which groups together the universities and specialized institutions of Toulouse in order to enhance the city’s image and to promote it abroad. In keeping with its international mission, the Pole European is designed to welcome foreign students to the Toulouse University complex and help them become integrated. Thus, on arrival, students, teachers, and researchers can take advantage of welcome programs and language modules which will make the transition much easier. The classroom facilities at the University of Toulouse is equipped with elevators and ramps and is accessible to individuals with disabilities.
Toulouse is located between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coasts. It is a city of over 100,000 university students and a center for cutting-edge European technology. With a population of 700,000 Toulouse is the fourth largest city in France. There are the three universities and more than twenty large colleges in the city. The University of Toulouse in particular, founded in 1229, has had, and continues to have, a profound cultural and intellectual impact on the community. Toulouse is also known as the leading European city in aeronautics and space technology, and is home to the Academie de l’Air et de l’Espace, which draws scientists and students from throughout Europe and the world. In addition to numerous accomplishments in aerospace, companies in Toulouse are on the cutting edge of information technology, biotechnology, electronics and strategic services. As such, Toulouse is a thriving, modern city, full of energy and technology set amidst the backdrop of over two millennia of history. Architecture throughout Toulouse reflects the city’s past, present, and future. The skyline features beautiful examples of gothic and Romanesque cathedrals and monasteries intermingled with glass office buildings of modern architectural design. Toulouse is also home to eight internationally renowned monuments including Le Capitole and Saint-Sernin Basilica. The influence of the past and future foster a colorful cultural atmosphere in Toulouse, which boasts ten major museums and eight major theaters. Toulouse rewards the wanderer. Its small, 18-century Old Quarter is a maze of narrow lanes and plazas in which to get happily lost. Its River Garonne is peaceful by day and romantic by night, when the Pont Neuf is floodlit. Stumble across grand churches, fine art and handsome 16th-century mansions.
Legal Aspects of International Co-Financing and Co-Productions in the Film Industry – 15th July – 26th July (1 unit) (pending approval)
Professor Roger Goff
A survey course covering the legal and practical aspects of film financing as it relates to multinational productions. Students will learn about film financing structures, foreign presales and production tax credits, as well as dealing with differences in language, cultures, business practices, currency and legal systems. We will discuss challenges which have arisen on actual films and how they were solved, look at actual contracts and financing documents, and learn useful drafting and negotiating skills.
Roger Goff is a legal counselor, business advisor and dealmaker for privately held entertainment companies. Much of Roger’s practice is in the film industry where he regularly represents both producers and financiers in a variety of film finance transactions. He is consistently involved in the development and production of dozens of feature films, negotiating deals with representatives for writers, actors and directors, in addition to arranging financing and distribution. He even serves as a music supervisor on occasion, combining his background in music with his expertise in music and film law.
Prior to becoming an attorney, Roger worked in radio and television broadcasting, commercial production, advertising and as a studio musician. He holds an FCC license as a broadcast engineer and graduated from the studio guitarists program at Musicians Institute. He began his legal career as a corporate attorney handling mergers and acquisitions and private securities transactions. He quickly transitioned to the music industry and spent many years representing independent record labels. Combined with his technical background, this experience gave him particular expertise in the developing areas of digital media and entertainment technology.
Roger is an Adjunct Professor in the School of Film and Television at Loyola Marymount University, where he teaches Business and Legal Affairs and The Business of The Business (team-taught with producer, Paula Wagner). He is a member of the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, and regularly comments on legal and business issues surrounding film, music and digital media.
INTERNATIONAL AND COMPARATIVE ANIMAL LAW – 1st July – 26th July (2 units)
(Intellectual Property Certificate Credit Available)
Professor Thomas Kelch
This class looks at Animal Law from an international and comparative law perspective. While the class is focused on issues relating to animals, it covers a number of subjects of general applicability relating to international law, international trade, intellectual property, and environmental law. Some of the subjects covered include analysis of moral theories relating to the relationship between humans and non-human animals; review of laws of numerous jurisdictions, including Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, the EU, Germany, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K., relating to the use of animals in agriculture, scientific experiments, sport and entertainment, including film, circuses and animal exhibitions; analysis of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora; study of the impact of international trade agreements on Animal Law issues, with a focus on the World Trade Organization, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights; consideration of the recent trend toward attempting to protect the interests of animals through constitutional provisions; and analysis of animal-related intellectual property issues including cloning, patenting of life forms, trade secrets, and sales of artwork created by animals. Another major topic of discussion will be the economic, moral, social and cultural foundations of the various approaches taken to Animal Law in different jurisdictions. The class requires a paper based solely on the readings and presentations in the class, and this paper will be due about a month after the class concludes. One or more field trips related to the class are possible and the class will visit a vegetarian restaurant in Toulouse. For those students who successfully complete their paper on an intellectual property-related topic, this course will provide 2 units of intellectual property elective credit for purposes of the Intellectual Property Certificate.
Professor Kelch began his career as a law professor teaching Bankruptcy, Corporate Reorganization and Commercial Law classes. Since then he has developed a teaching and research specialty in Animal Law. During his teaching career he has taught Animal Law, Business Associations, Bankruptcy and Corporate Reorganization classes, Corporations, Contracts, Commercial Law, International Animal Law, Real Estate Finance and Professional Responsibility. He has published extensively on bankruptcy, real estate and animal law, and has spoken at numerous conferences on bankruptcy and animal law issues. Among his publications are articles on business restructuring and bankruptcy, including articles on corporate governance and fiduciary duties in chapter 11 cases, and on derivatives contracts in bankruptcy. In the Animal Law area, Professor Kelch has published articles on Feminism and Animal Law, the concept of animals as property, and First Amendment issues in animal experimentation. He has also authored a book on International Law, Comparative Law, and International Trade issues relating to animals entitled GLOBALIZATION AND ANIMAL LAW, published by Kluwer Law International. As a practicing attorney Professor Kelch has represented debtors, creditors, creditors’ committees and asset purchasers in chapter 11 cases, including representing major creditors in cases like Enron, PG&E and Mirant Energy.
Entertainment Law – 1st July – 26th. July (2 units)
Professor Robert Webster
This course will serve as a dynamic and lively introduction to Entertainment Law. The following topics will be addressed: the law of ideas, fundamental copyright issues, privacy, freedom of expression, rights of publicity, contracts in the Industry, compensation and credits. In addition, we will explore custom and practice within the entertainment world as well as representation of entertainers. This up-to-date and very practical course will provide students with a basic mastery of areas of the law that are vital to the enthralling world of entertainment. The course should also help you to develop and refine some important lawyering skills such as client counseling negotiating and drafting contacts.
Following his education in England and France, Robert Webster was called to the Bar by the Honourable Society of the Inner Temple and was awarded a Silver Jubilee Scholarship and a Duke of Edinburgh Award by his Inn. He began his career at the English Bar by serving as Marshal (Law Clerk) to Mr. Justice Cantley, O.B.E., one of England’s highest-ranking High Court Judges, and his early practice embraced civil, criminal and commercial work. He represented parties before sports bodies and other professional disciplinary tribunals. His clientele also included government agencies. He ultimately developed a more internationally oriented practice that covered European Union Law, Human Rights and Media Law, specializing in Competition Law, international litigation, free speech and privacy issues. He has represented corporate and private clients, including publishers, in the United States, Europe and South-East Asia.
A former Senior Lecturer at London’s Inns of Court School of Law, where he pioneered special training programs for students from the Commonwealth and co-authored the School’s Civil Procedure textbook, he has been involved in teaching for over twenty years, offering Law School courses and Continuing Legal Education programs in the United States, the U.K., Austria, France, Hungary, Portugal and Malaysia. He has also developed and directed European programs, including LL.M studies, for American law students and has facilitated their placement in internships throughout the world. He is the Director of Whittier Law School’s Center for International and Comparative Law, the focus of the school’s international activities, bringing scholars, international practitioners and diplomats to the Law School to debate today’s central issues in the international arena. These colloquia culminate in an annual symposium devoted to a subject of current international legal import.
He has been a regular contributor to television and radio on international affairs and the law and has addressed numerous corporations, law firms and Bar Associations on a variety of international subjects with an emphasis on doing business in Europe. He maintains an active relationship with his chambers in London.
Global Business and Intellectual Property Law – 1st July – 26th July (2 units) (pending approval)
Professor Kevin Outterson
The global economic system is governed by a web of agreements and institutions, centered on the World Trade Organization in Geneva. We will look at the structure of the global administrative state through the lens of key WTO agreements and disputes and related bilateral agreements. Particular focus will be given to global intellectual property law under the WTO TRIPS agreement and TRIPS + bilateral and multilateral agreements. As a capstone to the course, we will look at two salient issues in the global economic system: generic access to patented pharmaceuticals and tobacco control through plain packaging legislation. The course assumes no prerequisites.
Professor Outterson teaches health law and corporate law at Boston University, where he co-directs the Health Law Program, currently ranked #5 in the country by US News. He serves as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics; faculty co-advisor to the American Journal of Law & Medicine; immediate past chair of the Section on Law, Medicine & Health Care of the AALS; and a member of the Board of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Before teaching, Professor Outterson was a partner at two major US law firms.
His research work focuses on the organization and finance of the health sector. Areas of specialization include global pharmaceutical markets, particularly antibiotics and other antimicrobials that can degrade in usefulness over time through resistance. He leads an interdisciplinary project on the legal ecology of antimicrobial resistance, funded in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation program on public health law. He is a faculty affiliate at the Harvard Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics and an appointed member of the Antimicrobial Resistance Working Group at the CDC.
Motion Picture Development & Production – 1st July – 12th July (1 unit) (pending approval)
Professor F. Jay Dougherty
This course will consider business and legal issues in the acquisition of rights and services involved in developing and producing a motion picture based on real events, using legal decisions, contracts and collective bargaining excerpts. In addition to learning about the primary “above the line” deals, the course will develop practical skills such as reading and interpreting contracts, and will introduce the business by giving an overview of so-called “Hollywood Accounting”, that is, contingent compensation, which is an important part of most rights and talent agreements.
During law school Jay Dougherty was a Harlan Fiske Stone scholar, a staff member of the Columbia Law Review and editor of the Columbia Journal of Arts & the Law. His legal career began in the Entertainment Department of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison in New York, where his work included representation of Broadway composers and authors. His interest in the motion picture area led to positions at the Motion Picture/Television/Music Departments of Mitchell, Silberberg & Knupp, the legal departments at United Artists Pictures and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures and the Business Affairs Department of Morgan Creek Productions. After a corporate takeover of MGM, Dougherty moved to the Legal Department of Twentieth Century Fox, where he became senior vice president of production and worldwide acquisition legal affairs. Before joining the Loyola faculty, Dougherty served as assistant general counsel for Turner Broadcasting System, responsible for Turner Pictures. He also taught as an adjunct professor at the University of Southern California Law Center for 10 years, and is an Adjunct Professor teaching International Entertainment Law for the Munich Intellectual Property Law Center in Munich. He is also a professional guitarist.
The Linda Kulakowski Scholarship was created in memory of Linda Kulakowski was an alum of the class of 2005 who participated twice in the Toulouse program. Her wish was that the scholarship be awarded to a female Whittier student in good standing and who demonstrated financial need. The anticipated amount to be awarded is approximately $500. The award is not available each year the program operates.
Students on a budget can choose to reside in university housing. Since 2008, the university offered housing at one of its best facilities with single studios, each with its own toilet and shower. However, in previous years the university housing complex has been coed floors with shared co-ed toilet and showers. We will request the best university housing available. The cost can be significantly cheaper than private housing. University housing is equipped with elevators but may not be accessible to individuals with disabilities; please feel free to inquire with the Program Director.
University housing facilities are located near the city center. There are numerous restaurants and cafes to choose from as well as several open air markets for buying fresh bread, cheese, fruits, vegetables, and meats. There are many fast food eateries for those on the run and more mindful of their budget. If you have special dietary requirements, the program director will assist you as best possible to satisfy your nutritional needs. Please consult with the Program Director for more details.
If you have applied to the program, it is not too early to begin thinking about your travel plans. The summer program in Toulouse does occur during the height of the tourist season, and therefore those who plan ahead will mostly likely get the best rates on airfares. Please consult with your travel agent.
Toulouse is a major European city, and there are many possible ways to arrange your arrival. You might look into the possibility of flying into Paris, France or London, England and from either city you can take a connecting flight to Toulouse. You might also consider taking the TGV (rapid train) from Paris to Toulouse. The trains run frequently throughout the day, and the trip is approximately five (5) hours. All travel on the TGV requires a reservation. Please keep in mind that trains tend to be crowded and booked during the summer months. Therefore, planning your travel early is recommended.
Students are required to attend all classes and participate actively in all classes. All students receive a course grade based on class participation and a required paper or exam administered at the end of each course. Seminar classes have limited enrollment and require regular class participation. For seminars, students may be required to make group or individual presentations, and typically the most significant component of the final grade is determined by a research paper of approximately 10-15 pages per unit of credit to be determined by the professor.
All Whittier Summer Abroad Courses are graded by using the same grading system used for the on-campus program. We do not offer courses on a Pass/No Pass basis except for units earned for Externships, Independent Study projects, and clinical or extern units. Professors report numerical grades based on a 4.0 point system as follows:
Whittier Law School will report all grades once they are reported and finalized by the professors. Professors submit grades no later than six weeks after the end of the program. Non-Whittier students must inquire with their home school for policies regarding accepting courses and transferring credit for courses taken at Whittier law school’s summer programs. Whether credit will be accepted and how grades will be reported at the home school is entirely at the discretion of each student’s home school.
For more information regarding Whittier Law School’s grading normalization policies, please see Whittier Law School’s Policies and Procedures.
The acceptance of any credit or grade for courses completed in a Whittier Summer Program by any law school other than Whittier Law School is subject to determination by the home school.
The program is open to law students who have completed their first year of full or part time study by the time the program begins. Law graduates may be admitted as auditors. All students, except Whittier students, must submit a letter of good standing from the Dean or Registrar of their school.
The application deadline is March 1, 2013. Early applications are encouraged as program enrollment may be limited. Applications received after the March 1 deadline will be considered only if space is available.
You may request an application from the Law School or print the form from this site. For your convenience, you may submit your application(s) and the required fee(s) by mail, email, fax, or in person to:
Office of International Relations
Whittier Law School
3333 Harbor Boulevard
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Fax: (714) 444-0855
Attn: Calvin Peeler
A complete application consists of a completed application form, and a non-refundable application fee of $100, payable by Visa, MasterCard or personal check. (Checks should be made payable to Whittier Law School. The application fee must accompany the application at the time of submission.)
It is unlikely that participation in foreign summer programs may be used to accelerate graduation. Whittier Law students interested in acceleration should consult with the Student Affairs office to review this issue in light of Standard 305, Interpretation 4. Non-Whittier students should consult with their home school.
You will be required to select your courses no later than the March 1 application deadline. For some programs, there are several course choices. In order for the Program Director to know whether all courses will be adequately subscribed, we require early registration. For your convenience, we have included on each program website course descriptions and a course plan or syllabus for each course to enable you to make your selections. This information is critical for planning the operation of our programs so that we are certain to offer courses that interest you. In the event that a course for which you have enrolled is undersubscribed, we will notify you promptly so that you can consider alternative choices. Courses with insufficient enrollment will be cancelled.
We must make early commitments of financial resources to operate our summer programs, including faculty assignments. Therefore, we will offer a very limited opportunity to add or drop a class after the registration deadline. Please consider carefully your course selections. You may change your registration until March 8 without consequence. Any request to add or drop a class(es) after March 8 will require an additional administrative fee of $25 per course.
Application Deadline: March 1, 2013. Applications received after this date will be considered only if space is available.
First Tuition Deposit Deadline: March 15, 2013. $200 Deposit Due
Final Tuition Balance & Housing Payment Deadline: April 1, 2013. (If you are applying for financial aid, please advise us.)
Last day to withdraw with no tuition obligation: April 1, 2013.
Requests to withdraw must be made in writing, and submitted or postmarked on or before April 16, 2012. Notices of withdrawal received after April 1 will not be considered for tuition/fee relief. Any program participant who withdraws after April 1 will be responsible for the full price of tuition and/or other non-refundable fees.
PLEASE NOTE: Failure to comply with a deadline will not automatically withdraw you from a program(s) to which you have applied and been admitted. Your failure to meet a defined deadline may subject you to an additional administrative fee. To request exemption from a deadline and avoid a fee, please contact the Office of International Relations.
Projected Expenses based on figures from 2011 (may vary depending upon when you purchase your ticket, the carrier, and other variables.)
|Personal Expenses||$ 1,900|
|Tuition & Fees||$ 4,600|
Please see Study Abroad – Financial Aid
Admitted students are automatically enrolled in the program(s) and counted for purposes of program plans upon submitting the signed acceptance letter. Should a student decide to withdraw from a program(s), s/he must submit in writing a “Letter of Declaration” setting forth an intention to withdraw no later than the close of business on April 1, 2013. For timely requests for withdrawal, all appropriate tuition and/or fees will be refunded within 10 business days of receipt of a letter of withdrawal. Failure to withdraw by April 1 will subject a student to tuition obligations as well as other fees the Law School has advanced on his or her behalf.
Please be advised that the Program Directors make early commitments to secure housing, purchase materials and pay for other program expenses based upon the number of participants determined shortly after the application deadline. Additionally, the Law School makes non-refundable financial commitments to faculty, program activities, and foreign hosts based upon the anticipated student tuition revenue at the time of registration. Therefore, it will not be possible for Whittier Law School to accept requests for refunds and/or relief of commitment to pay tuition or housing fees after the April 1, 2012 deadline to withdraw. A student who withdraws from a program after that date will be liable for all fees and tuition.
Please be advised that once you withdraw from a summer program, there will be a $50 fee to re-activate your application and reserve your space in the program in the event that you subsequently change your mind. We understand that a few of you may need to change your summer plans, and we are ready to assist you as best we can. We wish you all a wonderful and productive summer.
Notices of withdrawal received after April 1, 2013 will not be considered for refund or for tuition fee relief. Any program participant who withdraws after April 1, 2013 will be responsible for the full price of tuition and/or other non-refundable fees.
Whittier Law School will not refund tuition or housing fees or grant relief from these financial obligations under any circumstance after the April 16 deadline, not even in the event that a student withdraws for reasons or misfortunes beyond his or her control, e.g., academic disqualification, financial aid disqualification, medical emergencies, or any other unforeseen circumstances, etc. Therefore, it is very important that each student weigh carefully his or her decision to participate in one of Whittier Law School’s Study Abroad Programs. Since no tuition or housing fee will be refunded under any circumstance after April 1, students are encouraged to consider Tuition Insurance. You may inquire with the Calvin Peeler for additional information regarding Tuition Insurance.
Whittier Law School reserves the right to cancel or alter the Study Abroad Programs. The programs, or specific courses advertised, are subject to cancellation if the enrollment is insufficient or if a State Department travel warning has been issued for the country or area where the program will take place. Any cancellation or material alteration of the program will be promptly communicated to all enrolled participants. In the event that Whittier Law School decides to cancel, significantly change the course offerings, or make other material changes to a program, students will be notified and given the opportunity to withdraw without financial penalty. All tuition and all fees will be promptly returned. In the event of program cancellation, the Associate Dean for International Relations will assist displaced registrants to find suitable alternative summer programs.
Students typically learn their GPA in June after all grades have been submitted and published. It is particularly important that you carefully weigh whether you should apply to a Summer Abroad program if there is an apparent risk of academic disqualification. After April 1, 2013, no one is excused from financial commitments, even when disqualified and even when student loans are cancelled.
Please be advised that if you fail to withdraw by the withdrawal deadline and subsequently learn that you are academically disqualified, we will hold you responsible for tuition fees and any other fees we cannot recover should you decide not to attend the summer abroad program. Therefore, we invite your participation. You will be welcome to take courses, participate in enrichment opportunities, and fully participate in all program activities.
Please note, however, that due to your disqualification you will be ineligible to earn law school units or credit for your participation in the courses you take abroad. If you have concerns about your plans to go abroad, please contact the Office of the Associate Dean for International Relations.
Whittier Law School reserves the right to cancel or alter the Study Abroad Programs. The programs are subject to cancellation if the enrollment is insufficient or if a State Department travel warning has been issued for the country or area where the program will take place. Any cancellation or material alteration of the program will be promptly communicated to all applicants. In the event that Whittier Law School cancels a Study Abroad Program or makes a material alteration to the academic curriculum of any program, we will promptly return all tuition and all fees. In the event of cancellation, the Associate Dean for International Relations will assist all displaced registrants to find suitable alternative summer programs.
Whittier Law School assumes no responsibility for medical care or costs, and students may be required to show proof of health insurance that covers medical expenses incurred abroad. You are advised to check with your medical insurance provider to see if your current medical insurance covers emergency medical care while overseas. If it does not, you are strongly encouraged to consider buying supplemental medical and hospital coverage for the period of your stay overseas. You might inquire with your medical provider, insurance agent or travel agent.
Additionally, students are strongly encouraged to obtain medical evacuation insurance. Such insurance may be obtained from various providers including, but not limited to, the following possible providers: Travel Assistance International, (800) 821.2828 , http://www.travelassistance.com; Global Travel Insurance, (800) 232.9145 , http://www.globaltravelinsurance.com; and Travel Insurance Services, (800) 937.1387 , http://www.travelinsure.com; The Gateway Plans http://www.gatewayplans.com; Wallach & Company Inc. http://www.wallach.com; BETiNS, (866) 552-8834 , http://www.betins.com.
Whittier Law School is usually able to secure housing accommodations for all program participants. Although most students choose to reside in the program housing, for some programs residing in program housing is not a requirement in order for you to participate in the academic program (program pages for specific requirements). However, Whittier Law School assumes no responsibility for housing you choose on your own. The program housing is also a location for occasional gatherings and posting notices and program information. If you do not live in the program housing, you will be responsible for obtaining all program information.